The Buffalo Soldiers,
comprised of former slaves, freemen and Black Civil War soldiers, were
the first to serve the military during peacetime. These African-Americans
were charged with and responsible for escorting settlers, cattle herds,
and railroad crews. The 9th and 10th Cavalry Regiments also conducted campaigns
against American Indian tribes on a western frontier that extended from
Montana in the Northwest to Texas, New Mexico, and Arizona in the Southwest.
Throughout the era of the Indian Wars, approximately twenty percent of
the U.S. Cavalry troopers were Black, and they fought over 177
engagements. The combat prowess, bravery, tenaciousness, and looks on the battlefield inspired the Indians to call them "Buffalo Soldiers." Many Indians believe the name symbolized the Native American's respect for the Buffalo Soldiers' bravery and valor. Buffalo Soldiers, down through the years, have worn the name with pride.
Buffalo Soldiers participated in many other military campaigns: The Spanish American War, The Philippine Insurrection, The Mexican Expedition, World War I, World War II, and the Korean Police Action.
the Civil War, Congress authorized the formation of the 9th and 10th Cavalry
and the 38th, 39th, 40th, and 41st Infantry Regiments: Six all Black peacetime
units. Later the four infantry regiments were merged into the 24th and
25th Infantries. At least 18 Medals of Honor were presented to Buffalo
Soldiers during the Western Campaigns. Similarly, 23 African-Americans
received the nation's highest military award during the Civil War.